The smart battery

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The battery has the inherit problem of the inability communicate with the user. Nor weight, color, or size provides an signal of the battery’s state-of-charge (SoC) and state-of-health (SoH). An individual is at the mercy of the battery.

Assistance is at hand in revealing the code of silence. An increasing number of today’s normal rechargeable batteries are made ‘smart’. Built with a microchip, these types of batteries are able to contact the charger along with user alike. Common applications for ‘smart’ batteries are notebook computers and video cameras. Increasingly, these kind of batteries are also employed in biomedical devices and protection applications.
There are several forms of ‘smart’ batteries, each offering different complexities and costs. The most basic ‘smart’ battery could have nothing more than a chip that sets the actual charger to the proper charge algorithm. In the eyes of the Intelligent Battery System (SBS) community forum, these batteries can’t be called ‘smart’.

What next makes a battery ‘smart’? Definitions still vary between organizations and companies. The SBS forum declares that a ‘smart’ battery must be able to provide SoC signals. In 1990, Benchmarq was the initial company to commercialize the thought by offering fuel determine technology. Today, many manufacturers produce such chips. They are the single wire program, to the two-wire system to the System Management Bus (SMBus). Let’s first look at the individual wire system.

The Wire Bus
The only wire system offers the data communications by way of one wire. This kind of battery uses a few wires: the common negative and positive battery terminals and something single data fatal, which also provides the clock information. For protection reasons, most battery manufacturers run a distinct wire for temperature sensing. Figure One shows the layout of a single wire system.
Determine 1: Single wire system of a smart battery chargers .Only one wire is needed for data sales and marketing communications. For safety motives, most battery suppliers run a separate cable for temperature detecting.

The single wire technique stores the battery rule and tracks battery readings, including temperatures, voltage, current and SoC. Because of relatively minimal hardware cost, the only wire system looks forward to market acceptance with regard to high-end two-way radios, camcorders and portable computing devices.
Most single wire methods do not provide a common form factor; none do they lend themselves to standardized SoH dimensions. This produces problems for a universal charger concept. The Benchmarq individual wire solution, as an example, cannot measure the current directly; it must be purchased from a change in capacity as time passes. In addition, the single line bus allows battery SoH measurement only when the actual host is ‘married’ to your designated battery pack. This kind of fixed host-battery relationship is merely feasible if the original battery is used. Any kind of discrepancy in the battery pack will make the system difficult to rely on or will provide bogus readings.

The SMBus
Your SMBus is the most complete coming from all systems. It signifies a large effort from your electronics industry for you to standardize on one communications standard protocol and one set of files. The Duracell/Intel SBS, which is available today, was standard in 1993. It is a two-wire interface system composed of separate lines to the data and wall clock. Figure 2 displays the layout of the two-wire SMBus program.

Figure 2: Two-wire SMBus method.The SMBus is based on any two-wire system using a standard communications protocol. This system lends itself to standardized state-of-charge along with state-of-health measurements.

The objective guiding the SMBus battery would be to remove the charge control from the charger and also assign it for the battery. With a genuine SMBus system, the battery becomes the master and the wall charger serves as slave that has to follow the dictates from the battery.
Battery-controlled charging is smart when considering that some packs share a similar footprint but include different chemistries, requiring substitute charge algorithms. Using the SMBus, each battery receives the correct charge amounts and terminates full-charge with proper detection strategies. Future battery chemistries should be able to use the existing chargers.

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